Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction (by Margaret A. Boden)

42.cx Book Review, Kurt Hornburg, January 27th 2019

In the mid-1830’s Charles Baggage was credited with designing the first digital computer and his colleague Ada Lovelace, developing a prototype of a computer program. Since many of the pioneers of AI were not only mathematicians but also trained as neurologists, psychologists, philosophers, anthropologists, Margaret Boden, is well qualified to give insights into the beginnings of AI. She is a Professor at University of Sussex, UK, holding multiple degrees in the natural sciences and she incorporates these disciplines into her AI research. The book does not require mathematic knowledge or an understanding of algorithms, it is rather an introduction to the very broad, yet increasingly specialized field of AI.

As in many scientific fields, since the beginning of AI, there have been two approaches, which have been sometimes amicable and at other times, arch-rivals. Especially when professional prestige and funding were involved, the divide deepened. The cooperation was still good during the 1956 Dartmouth Workshop where the organizer, John McCarthy choose the term Artificial Intelligence for the name of the new field.

In 1958, Frank Rosenblatt published a description of neuronlike computing or connectionism, a parallel distributed processing system (PDP) which enabled self-organized learning. This fractured the field and an intellectual dissent developed between Symbolic AI vs. Connectionist AI/ cybernetic/ neural networks. In short, advocates of symbolic AI attacked the connectionists/ neural network supporters – effectively discrediting them.

The result was funding for neural network research dried-up for the next two decades. This ‘winter network research’ came to an end in the late 1980s, when it again came into fashion, swinging the pendulum toward neural networks research.

While the section on the history of AI can be difficult to follow, Ms. Boden’s description of the key strategies for classical AI is very succinct and useful. These are some of the approaches pioneered for Good Old Fashion AI or (GOFAI): Heuristic search, originating from the Greek word ‘Eureka’ for ‘discover” or ‘find’, essentially the study of the methods and rules of discovery. Innovative heuristic research, when applied to a very narrow domain, may produce considerable benefits. Planning in AI may seem mundane; however, it plays an important role in building complex hierarchies of instructions. These techniques of ‘forward-chaining’ and ‘backward-chaining’, provides human transparency in how the program arrived at its answer/recommendation, addressing an issue raised by AI critics.

Knowledge representation is the process of presenting the problem to be solved in a manner the system understands. There are creative, tailored approaches to knowledge representation which address problems in highly specialized domains, including medicine and legal. Semantics network is a type of knowledge representation, which can logically link concepts by semantic relationships, enabling a computer to understand. It is widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as speech recognition and search.

The pervasive use of Machine Learning often utilizes symbolic AI / GOFAI, combined with sophisticated statistical algorithms. This is why some professionals in the field believe GOFAI is more statistics or computer science, rather than AI. However, some Machine Learning (ML) employs neural networks. There is no clear border.

The book serves as an excellent reference for defining the many abbreviations and terms used in AI. The three main types of Machine Learning utilize symbolic AI for the most part; supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforced learning. There are a multitude of algorithms which may be utilized in ML and only after fully understanding the data sets and the context of the learning, can ML professionals select the algorithms to be used. Off-the- shelf algorithms are frequently used, rather than bespoke developments.

Deep learning is a broad family of Machine Learning, which is based on multilayer networks, “… deep learning discovers a multilevel knowledge representation...”. This combination of technologies is able to make assumptions, test the assumptions and even reevaluate the model in a self-organizing feedback loop. The chapter on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) gives an excellent overview of many types of neural networks; ANN or parallel-processing virtual machines on a conventional computer. PDP or parallel distributed network which is a category of ANNs.

When the major strengths of PDPs are examined, one gets insights into why deep learning is so powerful; first, the capability to learn patterns without being programmed by a human, second, ability to tolerate ambiguity in cluttered and chaotic evidence. This is done without humans developing exact definitions and required conditions. Third, the PDP networks can recognize patterns in data with lots of variance, so called ‘dirty data’.

The author’s explanation, “PDP involves distributed representation, for each concept is represented by the state of the entire network”, leads to the fourth advantage: A PDP network is dynamic, even when some nodes are down; the performance deteriorates gradually, i.e. it has ‘graceful degradation’.

Hybrid systems in AI describe those which utilize both symbolic and neural/connectionist programs. To develop hybrid systems, teams need expertise in both methodologies, the logical and the probabilistic.

Hybrid systems share some aspects with how our brain works, both sequentially and in parallel. If hybrid systems can more closely emulate the subtle cooperation between symbolic and neural programs, they will bring us a step closer to the elusive goal of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).



42.cx, March 4th 2020

42.cx @ The Royal Jungle Superior Suite

An entrepreneurs night in Munich Taking over a Luxury Hotel Suite

STARTUP REBELS
Apply now and join many selected startup rebels at The Royal Jungle Superior Suite!

RAVE COMMANDERS
Get advice from successful entrepreneurs who have built million dollar companies!

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42.cx, February 18th 2020

42.cx @ Fichtenhain: The Future of ML & AI

Artificial Intelligence matters: Future of Machine Learning & AI. Our moderator Anne Gfrerer welcomed two top-class guests: Daniel Mattes, managing director of 42.cx, entrepreneur and business angel, and Andrea Martin, head of the IBM Watson IoT Center in Munich. The Bavarian Minister of Justice Georg Eisenreich was there and gave an introductory speech.

Together with the experts, we got to the bottom of the question of what opportunities...

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42.cx, February 11th 2020

42.cx @ Golden Egg - The Indian Shark Tank

Goldenegg, a business proposal competition for budding and bootstrapped entrepreneurs, in association with Moti Lal Nehru Entrepreneurship Cell, University of Delhi, organised an amazing business plan competition at E-GNITE 2020. The competition saw participation of 15 budding entrepreneurs from various domains who presented their start-up ideas to the investors and mentors.

Around 500 students from different colleges...

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42.cx Book Review, Kurt Hornburg, January 27th 2019

Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction (by Margaret A. Boden)

In the mid-1830’s Charles Baggage was credited with designing the first digital computer and his colleague Ada Lovelace, developing a prototype of a computer program. Since many of the pioneers of AI were not only mathematicians but also trained as neurologists, psychologists, philosophers, anthropologists, Margaret Boden, is well qualified to give insights into the beginnings of AI. She is a Professor at University of Sussex, UK, holding multiple degrees in the...

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42.cx, December 23rd 2019

Season Greetings from 42.cx!



Dear Partners & Customers!

During this festive season of giving, let us take time to slow down and enjoy the simple things.

May this wonderful time of the year touch your heart in a special way.

Wishing you much happiness not just today, but throughout the New Year!

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42.cx, November 15th 2019

42.cx @ DIGICON 2019 in Munich

Once again 350 renowned participants from the areas of business, science and politics are expected at the 2019 DIGICON and will hold visionary presentations and discussions. Accompanying the convention will be the pitch battle for the 4th Munich Digital Innovation Award as well as the Marketplace of Innovation, which will give successful start-ups, KMU’s and large companies the opportunity to present groundbreaking innovations. We are proud to speak about "IP Assets: An Awakening in the Market? How to use Artificial Intelligence....

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42.cx, Kurt Hornburg, November 13th 2019

Hello World: How to Be Human in the Age of the Machine (by Hannah Fry)

In Nobel Prize winner Robert Shiller’s new book “Narrative Economics”, Shiller advocates ‘stories do still matter’ – that narratives based on fact or fiction can go viral and influence the actions of consumers and firms. Hence, economists should pay more attention to people’s narratives and be better story tellers themselves. Hannah Fry, a Professor in mathematics at University College London, uses stories effectively in her entertaining and accessible book about data.....

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42.cx, November 13th 2019

A.I. Auto-Generates M&A Candidates

During a global partner conference of an international M&A firm in Madrid, 42.CX presented the utilisation of IP and Intangible Asset analytics to enhance the process of M&A related short-list generation. Traditionally, when Company X wants to expand in a particular technology area and wants to prepare a list of potential acquisition candidates, questions around how to identify targets or how to rank them arise. A classical job for an M&A advisory firm. 42.cx presented a machine learning based approach, where an M&A target list was....

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42.cx, October 28th 2019

42.cx @ ICMEE 2019, China

42.CX, represented by Jivka Ovtcharova, presented at the ICMEE 2019 in China. The ‘2019 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Education’, held by Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), is a high-level standard activity in the area of mechanical engineering education. This conference is co-operated by CMES, ASME and IMechE, National Mechanical Engineering Teaching Advisory Board under the Ministry of Education and MEUEE....

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42.cx, Nicole Büttner-Thiel, September 30th 2019

The Renaissance of Humanity

AI, machine learning and robotics have become omnipresent in daily life and headlines. While innovators are ravishing that it can eradicate close to all of humanity’s problems and data and machines will in future take all the decision. At the same time, the public debate about the impact of these technologies is often fundamentally pessimistic painting a picture of superintelligent machines taking over the world to dominate and eventually eradicate the human race. The response to this is often defensive, trying to fend off disruptive forces to preserve a status quo and even idealize ....

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42.cx, September 25th 2019

Fresh from the press: Our new book "IP Assets: An Awakening in the Market?" is available now!

The global innovation race is heating up, with advances in artificial intelligence, blockchain, biotechnology, data storage and other cutting-edge technologies transforming sectors and global markets. This is also evidenced in the fact that the ratio of tangible to intangible assets of industry leaders around the world has been seeing ....

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42.cx, Gabriele Zedlmayer & Martin Drexler, September 24th 2019

Shalom from DLD Israel where cool people meet in the hot desert!

Many people keep asking about the connection between Yossi Vardi, the famous Israeli VC and Hubert Burda. It all started with a small conference in Beer Sheva almost 20 years ago called “Cool people in the hot desert”. This first major conference of the Hubert Burda Center in cooperation with Yossi Vardi was created to build a bridge between Germany and ....

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42.cx, August 6th 2019

"Get started where others talk" - Jivka Ovtcharova in an interview.

It is a man-made development that demands much from its habitual-loving creator: digitization. Your constant companion: the change. How is digital progress changing people? What role do our senses play in this? And to what extent must people rethink and reorganize companies in order to advance digitization in Germany? These and other questions are answered...

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42.cx, July 29th 2019

Center for Artificial Intelligence Talents - CAIT Celebrates Its Opening, Announces 42.cx

KARLSRUHE, Germany, July 29, 2019 The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) announced the establishment of the Center for Artificial Intelligence Talents (CAIT) located at the university's campus. CAIT considers digital education and the use of AI for everyone as a core requirement for professional success and participation in social and professional life...

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42.cx, July 9h 2019

42.cx Collaboration with CAIT (Center for Artificial Intelligence Talent)

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE puts the world in which we live and work in a fundamental upheaval. Like never before, whole industries and lifestyles change. A race for the future has begun at a moment when a great deal is at stake. "Any profound change also offers new opportunities for all who recognize the signs of the times." Under this motto, the Institute for Information Management in Engineering at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is...

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42.cx, Giacomo Bonavera, June 14h 2019

42.cx Market Intelligence Special Report: NVIDIA

42.cx is the leading research, advise and market intelligence provider for financial institutions in the area of Artificial Intelligence. As an independent authority, 42.cx classifies the AI market and constantly monitors 11.000+ companies in the field of Artificial Intelligence. 42.cx issues Market Intelligence Special Reports to different topics about the AI industry.

NVIDIA (NASDAQ: NVDA) share price slumped to half the value from its last year highs. While...

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42.cx, PRESS RELEASE, May 10h 2019

The Global AI Company Rally is Continuing: +30,02% in Q1/2019. What’s next in AI?

The expert members of the 42.cx Index Rebalancing Committee Meeting got together and conducted the quarterly review of the AI-42 INDEX™ constituents, discussed the latest Artificial Intelligence trends and shared market insights from their delegation visit to China. The rise of AI companies globally is continuing, with the AI-42 INDEX™ Q1/2019 closing at 10.677,55 points, an increase of 2.465,24 points (+30,02%) since the beginning of this year. The index, which is expressing the global growth of the...

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42.cx, Mike Halsall, May 7th 2019

Are we overestimating China’s AI capabilities?

In February 2018, the FT published an article outlining ‘Why we are in danger of overestimating AI’, arguing that ‘considerably more work is needed before we can reach the long-dreamt-of moment when machine intelligence matches the human variety’. By 2030, just 11 years from now, China has vehemently expressed its ambition to ‘lead the world in AI’. Is this a realistic ambition, or has China become entirely conceited in the midst of its new-found wealth and growing economic muscle?

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42.cx, PRESS RELEASE, March 29th 2019

42.cx Market Intelligence: Research Finds Only 5.45% of AI Companies Have High AI Expertise

41.35% of so called AI companies do not use AI at all. 10,861 public and private companies have been analysed worldwide. New AI Market Intelligence Platform helps Venture Capital firms, Private Equity companies, asset managers, analysts, family offices and financial institutions to identify investment opportunities.


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42.cx, Gabriele Zedlmayer, March 15th 2019

Trouble in Paradise?

So there seems to be trouble in Paradise. The globe is facing massive challenges like climate change, cyber-crime, shortage of available resources, political instability and the potential of massive job loss because everything that can be automated will be. At the same time, we are seeing unprecedented opportunities like we have never before. Algorithms help us to better diagnose, predict and prevent diseases, they revolutionize the education sector by treating each student as an individual, and they free us from many repetitive and often cumbersome tasks.

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42.cx, Anne Gfrerer, March 9th 2019

Artificial intelligence is in the air: Ready or not -
Why managers should foster digital readiness of their firms

In the last years, technology has gradually become invisible and digital ubiquity is arising in our daily work and private lives. This is also true for artificial intelligence and its impact for companies to succeed in the digital age. Organizations must foster their digital readiness, which decides about their future business model and which encompasses a...

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42.cx, Jivka Ovtcharova, February 21st 2019

Artificial Intelligence goes Twinning - making analytics come alive

We live in exciting times. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is fundamentally transforming the world with all its facets. Even if it has been around for a while in science and technology, aiming to create machines with some form of human intelligence, over time AI has become an inseparable part of our daily lives, personal as well as professional. Online searching engines, financial transactions, digital personal assistants, image and voice recognition are...

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Competence in Artificial Intelligence

Rigourous systematic.


Daniel Mattes Daniel Mattes Daniel Mattes